The history of the Eurasian people in the light of DNA – Gen

The history of the Eurasian people in the light of DNA – Gen

Сообщение Aigul » 15 фев 2014, 05:51

About history of people, about conquerors since the time of Alexander of the Great, about tribes and the people, ancestors and modern inhabitants of Eurasia.
Some believe so that it is possible to study history of any people separately. But actually, without history of Turkic peoples it is impossible to understand history of Russians. When already almost all hypotheses are created, it maybe so that some data about other people at all contradict the "prepared" theory.
Therefore the history can't be understood on any interval of time, or in any limited area.
The history is rewrite by rulers, the concepts of justice and names of the cities and the states change. Historical evidences are coins, the finds of archaeological researches, chronicles, maps, compliance of cards, petroglyphs are images the rocks, literary works, the similarities and distinctions of the modern languages. Languages of communication represent a valuable material for historical researches, however linguistic and patrimonial communities do not always coincide. Genetic studies are more and more important materials in confirmation or refutation of the various historical hypotheses.
At each person each cage contains an identical set of 23 pairs of chromosomes. Pair of chromosomes responsible for the sex of the person, can be set of XY (male) or XX (female).There are researches of both male chromosomes and female. Male hereditary material does not change by itself, women caused these changes. Systematization of female genetics is very complicated. In wives took women from different tribes, and that women are the cause of changes in the male lines, which are studied by modern researchers. Genetic researches allow to specify, to confirm or to disprove certain historical - geographical hypothesis.
In ancient history, modern types of chromosomes did not meet. Scientists define time of a possible mutation of prehistoric chromosomes, and sequence of their origin. Not so easy- if at the line of the progenitress of mankind, Eve, the history of mutations of genes is restored from 140 - 150 thousand years, that at the primogenitor, Adam, - only from 80-120 thousand years.
In genetic studies are important both types of Y - chromosome and X – chromosomes. Hereinafter will be links on the male haplogroup - types of male (Y) chromosome. To receive any regularities in X - chromosomes it is impossible. Analysis of Y-chromosomes already allows drawing conclusions about the origin of man. Types of human haplogroups are defined starting with A, B. All the subsequent haplogroups of men have formed by mutations, ostensibly by the random changes in the genes. Mutations probably could not occur in the same locality, although the original history of humanity converges in all studies in Africa.
In total, according to various sources, the person has from 25 to 40 thousand genes, although there is evidence of a much larger number of human genes. Gene is logically allocated portion of the genetic material, repeated from cell to cell, (spirals on the basis of deoxyribonucleic acid – DNA).
Only about 1.5% of human genetic material linked with genes, the remaining space is conditionally empty. It is possible that the "empty" spaces serve to protect the human immune, and to transmit the acquired information, including predetermined mutations in a gene change.
Haplogroups A, B, found only in Africa, 80-100 thousand years ago. At a mutation 40-50 thousand years ago, it was formed haplogroup C, which refers generally to Mongolia, Central and East Asia.
Mutation in the group B, led to the creation of the group F. At this time, there are people with haplogroups G, IJK, H are migrants from Africa.
The origin of main haplogroups.
Generally accepted scheme of changes men’s haplogroups.
A BТ (80 - 100 000 years ago, Africa)
|
B CТ
|
DE CF
|.. |
D E C F (60 000 years)
|
G IJK H
...|
I.......J.......K (20 000 years)
|...... |
I.......J..... L K(xLT) T
|..... |...... |
I1 I2 J1 J2 M NOP S
...............|
.............NO P
..............| |
............N O Q R
..................|
................R1 R2 (20 000 years)
.................|
..............R1a R1b
Before the ice age, the probable origin of DE in Tibet, expansion in groups D and E - in the direction of Africa. The origin of Arabs connected with E. Haplogroup D1 occurs among Tibetans (and among the inhabitants of mainland East Asia, where the extremely rare meets "parent" haplogroup D). Haplogroup D2 - among the different populations of the Japanese Archipelago, Haplogroup D3 - among the Tibetans, Tajikistan and in other mountainous regions of south Central Asia. The probable migrants from the haplogroup D were the Sumerians.
During the ice age, the general direction of migration of the tribes happened from north to south, in Africa, Mongolia and India. The eastern and western direction of migration existed at all times. Northern direction was associated with the retreat of a glacier in the central Europe about 13,000 years ago, since that time the migration of tribes in the direction from Assyria in Spain began. The Celtic - Iberian expansion forced carriers of haplogroups I1, I2, to migrate, which have the main location on the Mediterranean coast, towards Scandinavia, Finland, Russia (I1). Carriers of haplogroup I2 (Slavs) went in the western direction on the territory of modern Russia, but part of the tribes remained in the mountains of Montenegro. Now Montenegrin Slavs have very similar language with Russian. In modern Russia, the occurrence of (haplogroups) I1 is about 6%, I2 is about 12%. History relationship of Russian rulers to fellow men of Slavs (I2) is the story of treacheries, since Peter I.
South Slavic language (I2) was formed under the influence of the Scythians and Turks, and also are influenced languages of northern Slavs (I1), Latin languages, and this language was the basis of the modern Russian language.
The spread of haplogroup I (I1, I2) in Europe by nationalities.
Bosnian Croats - 73%
Dargins - 58% [2]
Sardinians - 42.3%
Bosnians - 42.0%
Norwegians - 40.3%
Swedes - 40.0%
Danes - 38.7
Slovenes - 38.2%
Serbs - 29.2%
Russian Cossacks - 22.7%
Ukrainians - 21.9%
Russian - 20.0%
Moksha - 19.3%
Age of male haplogroup R is about 20 thousand years (the end of the ice age). Warming, 10 000 - 15 000 years ago, caused the expansion of the peoples of Africa to the north, in the direction of Spain, and Indo-European peoples groups migrated to north in the direction from the Crimea to the center of modern Russia, from India - to the east, then to the west, in the direction from Russia to Prussia.
Differences the African (Africa - Spain) and the Indo-European lines (migration to the north, in the direction of Russia and to the west in the direction of Prussia, migration in Mongolia) in male new growth the haplogroups R are, respectively, R1b and R1a. Peoples of haplogroups C, N, O formed in Mongolia, southern Siberia, China. Differ in tribes Q are Siberia – Americans, Maya people, O3a is Han. N is the South Siberian tribes.
History, since the time of Alexander the Great is a history of conquests.
Central Asia was attacked by Huns, Arabs and Persians. Also Russia was attacked by Swedes, Prussians, Teutons, and Germans. In the near history, were the French (1812), Germans, Romanians and Italians (1941).
There is the reserve of Scythian images on the Lake Issyk-Kul in Cholpon - Ata city. The pictures are on the stones ranging in size from 1 to 3 meters. Scythians have the knowledge of military arts, engaged in cattle breeding, handicrafts, and hunting. Scythians and Sakas were the progenitors of the Russian people and the peoples of Central Asia. Many finds of the times of Scythians were found on the Crimean Peninsula, which, according to many reports, was the center of the Scythian kingdom.
Scythian petroglyphs in Cholpon – Ata city.
http://i-k.museum.unesco.kz/RAIK_description.htm
People of the Scythian kingdom were characterized by the main haplogroups R1a1. The Scythian kingdom was united with India after the conquest by Alexander the Great of Asia and India. In the history there were chronicles of the conquests of Alexander the Great. All cities which were founded by this conqueror, were called - Alexandria, with different additional indexes.
Branches of the Indo-European line which passed to the east and then turned to the west (R1a1) assimilated with a stream (R1b1) (from Africa - to the north). Now the majority of the population of Western Europe has a much larger statistics of R1b1, than R1a1.
Descriptions of campaigns of the world king Alexander the Great to Central Asia and Afghanistan don't testify about big battles. The campaign to Central Asia (329 — 327 BC) is a fight against Scythian tribes between Amu - Darya and Syr Darya. The offensive of Alexander the Great’s armies to the north was limited by the Syr Darya River (Yaksart). The conquests of Alexander the Great did not have to destroy countries - but he subdued the rulers of people.
In Tajikistan, Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria Eskhata (Alexandria Extreme); it is now the city of Khujand. The city of Kandahar in Afghanistan was also founded by Alexander the Great, called the city as well - Alexandria.
The combat operations of Alexander the Great were not conducted on the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan. They were conducted in Central Asia, in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan.
In Afghanistan (Bactria), in 327 BC, Alexander married Roxana, she was the daughter of the local grandee Oxiart, and they had a son. The great tsar and the commander, Alexander the Great didn't lose any battle, and won also India, and died before the age of 33 years.
The Scythian kingdom with the center in the Crimea existed until the second half of the III century AD and was destroyed by Huns.
The researches of archaeologists and excavations show that the Scythians were taller people. In combat, the Scythians held in their teeth the reins of horses, and guns, spears, swords, shields, kept both hands. The Scythians were blond.
The burials of the Scythian princesses, who were frozen in permafrost, were discovered in the North Altai, in our time. Remains of princesses that damaged during thawing were transported to Moscow.
Scythian petroglyphs in Cholpon - Ata city (from millenniums BC).
http://i-k.museum.unesco.kz/RAIK_description.htm
Archaeological researches distinguish some tribes of the Scythians with the broken bite of teeth; probably it is the certificate of that in these tribes Scythians kept reins of horses in teeth. Likely, the Scythians were forced to own martial arts because of the constant danger from raids of foreigners.
For their dwellings, the Scythians used stones and clay. The Scythians could melt metals, to make cold steel, tools, clay and metal crockery. The Scythians had mills, based on the rotation of lapped stones. There was settled cattle-raising.
When the Huns attacked the Scythians, the Scythians (Sakas, Prussians) went to the north, in foresters, and also to the east in Mongolia. The Huns attacks occurred from the west. Known the Huns attacks after the conquests of Alexander the Great, is in 3 century BC.
There are not data about the living in the time of the conquests of the Central Asia by Alexander the Great (3 century BC). However, there are data about the Scythians’s guerrilla war on Syr- Darya, that is, the data are evidence of residence in the territory of the Scythians.
It is possible to follow the sequence of the existence of states on the territory of Russia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
1. The Scythian kingdom. The capital of the kingdom was in the Crimea. The Scythians lived on the shores of the seas and rivers from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean, along the Amur River, inhabited the shores of the rivers Amu - Darya, Syr- Darya, and the shores of the Lake Issyk - Kul.
2. The Scythian kingdom was merged with India after the conquest of Asia and India by Alexander the Great.
3. After the conquest of the Scythians by the Huns in the 3rd century BC., formed state of Ephtalites.
The Scythians (Sakas, Prussians, Rusaks), went to the north, probably during the invasion of the Huns in the 3rd century BC, and to the east, in Mongolia.
The composition of the Hun is very complex. These are the ancestors of Bashkirs (R1b1), tribes that related with Semites (J1, J2), Argyns (G) and other tribes, originating in the Middle East, and in Europe.
Existence of haplogroup R1b1 among modern peoples speaks not only about belonging of their ancestors to the Huns, but also about the subordination of their ancestors to conquerors.
Correspondingly, statistics R1b1of the Permian and Baimaks Bashkirs is 84% and 81%. The statistics of Burzyan, West-Orenburg and Samara- Saratov Bashkirs is - 33, 23 and 18%, respectively. The East- Orenburg and Abzelilovsks Bashkirs have 9% and 7%. Haplogroup R1b1of Sterlibashevsks Bashkirs of the Cis-Ural region generally not detected (research of Lobova).
The toponymy of the word "Rusaks".
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/
The probable origin of the word "Israel" is “IZ”(accordance), “RA”(lord), “EL”(people)-the people of lords. J,J1, J2 is clan of Abraham, about 17,000 years ago.
Sephardim is the Spanish Jews line, mixed with Western European flow of migration, which went to Spain, corresponds to haplogroup R1b1 (Africa -> Spain).
Ashkenazi is the German line of Jews who mixed with the flow of people in the direction from east to west, corresponds to haplogroup R1a1 (Scythia -> Russia -> Prussia).
According to the one of the founders of the DNA - genealogy, A.A.Klesov.
http://rugiland.narod2.ru/raznoe/proish ... aklyosov_/
Time calculation of appearance of Jews on R1a1 tree is given 54 generations ago, 650 years AD (7th century). It is pointed out the time of penetration of R1a1 - to Jews as 1350 years ago.
According to many recourses, haplogroup R1a1was found among Jews - Ashkenazi 7-10%, the same incidence of haplogroup E among Jews - Sephardim, they have the same, with approximately the same frequency occurs R1b1, however R1b1 originated among Jews much earlier.
Among Jews
J – 17500 years
J1 – 15500 years
K,T - 8500 years
E1b1b - 6800 years
J2 - 6000 years
R1b - 5000 years
I1 - 4100 years
G2 - 4000 years
G1 - 3600 years
I2 - 1400 years
R1a1 - 1350 years (7 century)
Q - 675 years
R2 - 650 years
G2c - 575 years
I21b - 500 years

http://new.chronologia.org/volume10/tur ... e1b1b1.php

The prevalence of haplogroup J among modern Jews
J
Ashkenazi
Kohanim 86.8
Levites 10.0
Israelites 37.0
Sephardim
Kohanim 75.4
Levites 32.3
Israelites 36.5
************
The formation of related tribes J2 many historians associate with Crete, J1 with Qatar and Yemen.
J2 exists among Kazakh Dulats, Ingush (89%), and Chechens (57%), the peoples of Dagestan.
J1 also has spread in Caucasus. The statistics of J2 among Armenians, Georgians, Turks, Azerbaijanis is about 30%, but the statistics of J1 among Turks and Azerbaijanis is also about 30%.
During the invasion of Hitler Germany, Stalin resettled in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan the North Caucasian peoples with ancient Semitic origin.
The origin of the Swedes.
R1a1 occurs among Swedes around 24%. R1a1a1, R1a1a2 are among Scandinavians.
Svedi, шведы (Russian), Swede (English) - Goths (Ety) (Ety, eti - the mountain tribes)
Svei-North-Germany tribes, Svoi- opposite and strangers
Swedish
svensk - Swede
svenskar- Swedes (plural)
Helig- light, holy, Olga and Oleg
Interaction with Russia on the communication level.
Prophetic Oleg lived in the 10th century.
The statehood of Sweden formed in 10- 11 century. In Sweden there was no serfdom.
It is interesting:
http://istorya.ru/forum/index.php?showtopic=438
The table below shows how the Indo-European migration of the Scythians (R1a1) led to the formation of European nations.
The frequency of haplogroup R1a1, in %
Russians (north)-34
Russians (center)-47
Russians (south)-55
Belarusians- 50
Ukrainians -54
Poles -56
Slovaks -47
Czechs -38
Slovenes -37
Croats -34
Serbs -16
Bulgarians -15
Lithuanians- 34
Letts- 39
Finns 6-9
Swedes -24
Germans- 8
Germans (Bavarians) -15
English (East)- 9
Romanians- 20
Tatars - about 30% R1a1
Pashtuns (Afghans) - 35%
Kyrgyz - 60%
Kazakhs - 30%
Iranians - 35%
Russian haplogroups, as of 2008 year
(here are haplogroups, higher than 0.01%)
C-F 0,10
C 0,05
C3 0,16
E1b1 0,04
E1b1b1 0,20
E1b1b1a1 1,88
E1b1b1a1b 0,52
E1b1b1c 0,29
E1b1b1c1 0,08
F 0,41
G 0,04
G1 0,13
G2a 0,98
I 1,64
I1 5,64
I1d 0,53
I2 1,06
I2a 10,05
I2b 0,23
I2b1 0,99
J 0,18
J1 0,27
J1c 0,11
J1c30,21
J2 1,01
J2a 0,08
J2a4 1,02
J2b 0,16
J2b2a 0,08
J2b1 0,04
K 0,43
N 0,58
N1 0,09
N1b 1,40
N1c 14,46
N1c1 1,73
Q 0,19
R 0,04
R1 0,68
R1a1a 44,54
R1a1a1g 1,21
R1b1 0,19
R1b1b1 0,14
R1b1b2 4,46
R1b1b2a* 0,36
R1b1b2a1* 0,01
R1b1b2a1a1* 0,12
R1b1b2a1a2 0,09
R1b1b2a1a2f* 0,04
R1b1b2a1a2d 0,04
R2a 0,03
T1 0,33
T1b 0,18

The table on the regions of Russia, 2008 year
http://gentis.ru/info/ydna-tutorial/russian

It is about the origin of R1a1
http://www.evpatori.ru/skifskie-portrety.html
Historical origins of haplogroup R1b1 in Russia is the Huns (Bashkirs), which has significant statistics in this group, and migrants from the West Europe. Total in Russia now is about 5% of the Russian population have haplogroup R1b1.
About the group R1b1, P.Zolin,
http://www.proza.ru/2010/01/12/157
Haplogroups N, O have the South Siberian and Chinese origins. N1c has probable origin in Altai and the Far East; it is about 3500 years ago, such as the founders of Russia, as well as Slavs (I2) and their northern branch of the line I - (I1). Carriers of haplogroup O are Naimans, Naimans have 3/4 O 1/4 G1 (Argyns). Tatars have statistics of N2, N3.
Tribes R1a1 - can be called the founders of the Russian people and the tribes N1c, I2, I1, and other tribes are the first founders of the Russian people, a modern language of which is now based on the language of the Slavs tribes (I2).
N1c
Novgorod Slovenes
Viatichi
Krivichi;
Tribes
--Chud,
--Votes,
-- Golyad,
--Ves’,
--Livs,
--Merya,
--Muroma,
--Korela,
--Mordva,
--Latgalians,
--Ests
http://www.karvin.ru/etnos/gaplotips/
There are data about the genetic affiliation of Vladimir Monomakh, Rurikids and Peter the Great to the type N1S (N3).
80% Argyns has haplogroup G, it has ancient origins.
G1, G2 and their subgroups.
Mutations- markers M201 (G), M285 (G1), P287 (G2) with common subgroups are P16 (G2a1), M406 (G2a3a), G2a3b1 (P303), M377 (G2c).
The predominant carriers (> 60%): Ossetians, (>25%): Georgians, Circassians, Abkhazians, Abazins, Balkars, Karachay, (> 5%): inhabitants of the island of Sardinia, Ibiza, Cyprus, Crete, Sicily; Austrians, Swedes, Bohemians, Hungarians, Armenians, Persians, Pashtuns, Kalashes, Turks, Southern Ukrainians, Southern Germans, northern Italians, inhabitants of some regions of Spain and France, also can add Naimans. There is evidence about I.V.Stalin’s belonging to Argyns.
In Mongolia, the Oirat and Cato tribes, and other tribes have statistics of haplogroup R1a1. Statistics of Mongols - this is also the group G, which is at the Kazakh tribes, in particular, group S3s.
4. The Turkic Khaganate began to form in the Altai in the 6th century. Altai comes from the Turkic words - alty ai - six months. The Turkic Khaganate existed from 552 to 603 years.
Events of Turkic Khaganate:
552 year-the State Jujan in North China was defeated. Turkic peoples killed adult men and took away children and women to itself.
561-567 years – Ephtalits were broken in Sogdia, together with Iran.
567 – 571years- the subjugation of the Khazars and the Bulgars
Turkomen alternated peace and war with Persians (Iran), and defeated the Byzantine union.
The meaning of the word “Turkic” is sturdy and durable.
Turkic word “Kyrgyz” is means implementation or establishment.
About the history of Kyrgyzstan.
http://www.for.kg/ru/kyrgyzstan_history/3/

Kazakhstan and the Celestial Empire.
http://www.centrasia.ru/newsA.php?st=1214035800
An overview of versions about the origin of the Kyrgyz
http://www.kyrgyz.ru/?page=223
In the 603 year, the Turkic Khaganate disintegrated into the Eastern Turkic Khaganate and the Western Turkic Khaganate.
In the year 650 was formed the Khazar Khaganate, which existed until 969 years. Khazars’s tribes formed from Ephtalites tribes, Caucasian tribes with Arab and Iranian origin, and from the Turkomen. “Haz”, in Arabic, and “Kaz”, in Turkic, mean nomadic.
The Khazar Khaganate entered into the Turkic Khaganate. Expanding of the boundaries of Turkic Khaganate was accompanied by migration a large number of Turkic tribes in Central Asia. In the 7th century territory of Kyrgyzstan was the part of the Western Turkic Khaganate, but in 8-9 centuries it was the part of the Karluk Khaganate.
http://www.horizon.elcat.kg/english/rus/intro.html
According to data
http://slawianie.narod.ru/str/strana/kievrus.html
“Kievan Rus’ was one of the largest states in Europe. The history of it passes through several stages. Until 882 year there is an association under a unified power of tribes of Polans, Severianes, Drevlyans, Dregovichi, Polotsks and Slovenes. This stage concluded of the merger of Kiev and Novgorod. The chronicle connected this event with Oleg's name and his campaign from Novgorod to Kiev. After capture of the power by Oleg in Kiev the new stage of development of the Old Russian state – blossoming of an early feudal monarchy begins. In 981 the East Slavic lands were attached to Kievan Rus’ to the river San; in 992 the lands of Croats lying on both slopes of the Carpathians Mountains were its part.
988 year - the baptism of Kievan Rus’.
In 989 year Russian men-at arm went to Yotvingians, and Russian population, inhabited the region up to the borders of the Prussians possessions, laid the foundation of Black Russia. In 981year the land of Viatichi joined to the Old Russian state, although there were still a long time preserved the traces of its independence; three years later the power of Kiev extended on the Radimichi. By 1054 Kievan Rus' captured almost all East Slavic tribes, and Kiev became known as "matigorodomrusskym." The tendency to the disintegration of Kievan Rus’ appears in the second half of the XI century. However, in the first half of the XI century again there is a strengthening of a feudal monarchy as in connection with an impact of cumans, princes sought to unite their forces. Kievan Rus' for some time again becomes more or less a single state, but development of the feudal centers and the increased role of court nobilities strengthened aspiration of its separate parts to independence. In 1132 Kievan Rus' broke up, and the period of feudal dissociation began."
In the first half of the IX century Khazar tribes called Kawars, left the country and joined to the Hungarians, together with whom came to Pannonia and subsequently assimilated.
The vector of movement of Indo-Europeans - Scythians (R1a1) to the north, made primogenitors of tribes of Russians, Ukrainians, Poles. Russians have an occurrence haplogroup R1a1 slightly less than 50%, and Ukrainians and Poles have more than 50%. It is possible because Russians write also some other ethnic groups.
In the 9th century was formed Oghuz Khaganate, by the name Oghuz Khan. Oghuzes have the Turkic origin. In 965, Prince Svyatoslav concluded a military agreement with the Oguz-Turkic (Torquay). Khaganate of "unreasonable Khazars" was conquered under the blows of the Oguzes and Russians. Volga Bulgaria has been won in a campaign of Prince Vladimir in 985. Princely retinue floated on barges, and the Oguz-Turkic drove along the shore.
5. The state of Samanid in the south, in 819 - to 1005 years, associated with the onslaught of the Arabs and Persians.
Arabs, Persians, Samanids are the progenitors of Tajiks and Uzbeks.
The progenitors of Samanids are Arabs, Persians, Ephtalits and Turkic people.
The progenitors of Uzbeks are Naimans, the Turkic tribes, Tats, Ephtalits (Scythians, Huns), Persians.
Uzbeks have greater parental influence of Turkomen than Tajiks. The history of the Uzbek people describes over 90 ancestral tribes.
The word “Kazakh” probably derived from the word “kaysak”. Also “kaz” in Turkic is nomad. The primogenitors of modern Kazakhs, in Russia before revolution 1917, called the Kyrgyz –Kaysaks.
One of the tribes of primogenitors of modern Kazakhs is Argyns. From Argyns are poet Abai and Bogenbay Batyr.
Argyns weren't given to Genghis Khan; also do not give up and to the Russian army, which won the Crimea, and Crimean Argyns then went to the Ottoman Empire. Argyns went to the Amur River (there is an influx Argut, it is from plural-Argyns), to the Yenisei river and the Crimea.
About Argyns are the ancestors of the Kazakhs, Hungarians, Tatars, Turkic and other peoples.
http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/
The meaning of the word “Argyn” is mixture. Traces of the name of the tribe Argyns have in geographical names in the Far East, the Caucasus, Turkey, and the Western Europe.
The main tribes of Mongols, Argyns, Naimans, Scythians (Sakas) are Kazakhs’ primogenitors. Argyns are primogenitors of Hungarians, Turks, and Kazakhs. The primogenitors of Uighurs, Dungans are Dzhungars (Chinese line). Naimans are ancestors of the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and the most part of Naimans belonged to Christians. Many tribes did not obey the conquerors, and settled on the Yenisei River, on the Amur, in the Crimea, along the Syr - Darya. Origin of Naimans (O) and the Russian northern tribes (N) is China, may be southern Siberia. Statistics of Argyns is at the Western European nations, peoples of the Caucasus and Kazakhstan.
6. The formation of Russian statehood, continued during the Golden Horde. The Golden Horde protected its territory from the incursions of the Western barbarians; Rus’ state was a vassal of the Golden Horde.
Until the revolution in 1917year, the Golden Horde was known as Ak - Horde, White Horde. Soviet historians changed inadmissible name "white" to "gold". The eastern part of the horde had a name - "Green Horde", "Cock-Horde”.
Russian name Horde corresponds to Turkic Jochi Ulus, Great State. Ulug Ulus, this state existed from 1224 - 1483 years and was part of the Mongol Empire from the beginning of the formation of the Golden Horde, until 1266 year. In 1266year under Khan Mengu-Timur it found full independence, having kept only formal dependence on the imperial center of Mongolia.
The rulers of the Golden Horde (Ak - Horde) have line C, C3, and R1a1. Chingizids have Mongol haplogroup C.
Exact data about haplogroup of Genghis Khan and Timur is not exists. Probably Genghis Khan had haplogroup C3 and Timur R1a1. Timur Tamerlane died in 1405, and was buried in mausoleum near Samarkand. Gerasimov studied the remains of Timur, from the grave, opened in the year 1941.
According to many data, Gerasimova were instructed to make Timur's portrait as much as possible Mongolian.
In the Golden Horde (Ak-Orda) in the Timurid dynasty (until 1450), the power could only belong to the descendants of Genghis Khan. It is possible that Abulhairkhan 1, who became the leader of the Kazakh Khanate in 1428 year, had the same haplogroup - R1a1.
About Timur Tamerlane
http://www.detiperuna.ru/?p=2798#more-2798
The capital of Ak-Orda is Old Sarai which located on a site east of the Akhtuba river, in the Astrakhan region, in Kharabali District, near to the modern village of Selitrennoye. The village is located 115 km from Astrakhan. The city was founded by Batu Khan in 1254 year. The size of city - on the left coast of Akhtuba is 15 km and deep into steppes is 3 km, tens kilometers of suburbs. Selitrennoye village stands on the ruins of the ancient city. There were luxurious palaces, 13 mosques, ponds, gardens, water pipe was laid. The Golden Horde was defeated by Tamerlane; the capital of the Horde destroyed them for 10 years before his death in 1395.
The city had its ceramic, foundry, jewelry workshops. On the highest hill above the coast of Akhtuba Khan's palace stood. According to legend, Khan Palace was decorated with gold.
In 1260 year, near Volgograd, on the left side of the Akhtuba, was founded Sarai - Berke city. Since 1282 year - the city became the capital of the Golden Horde (Ak - Horde).
http://www.visitvolgograd.ru/article/ob ... 1/0071.htm
In 1204 year, Genghis Khan in Mongolia came to power.
To 1211 the Scythians and the Mongols (Mongolia) gained Central Asia and Siberia. In 1211 year, Genghis Khan began the conquest of Northern China, which was completed after his death in 1234 year.
Genghis Khan had fought with the Turks, and the Khazars. Possible components of the Mongol tribes are subgroup C.
In 1218 year the Mongols conquered the whole of Korea. After that, to 1221year, Genghis Khan has won cities of Bukhara, Samarkand, Merv, Urgench, Khorezm. Mongols conquered northern Iran, came to the Caucasus, the Georgian cities destroyed, and smashed Georgian troops, then passed through the Shirvan gorge to the North Caucasus and faced with the cumans. Then, in 1223 year, there was the first battle of Russian soldiers with the Mongols.
By the end of the life of Genghis Khan (1227), the Mongols conquered territory from the Pacific Ocean in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west.
Since 1312 the state religion of the Golden Horde became a Sunni Muslim, who introduced by Uzbek - Khan. The word “Uzbek” in Turkic is “your own master”. Uzbeks are people of Uzbek Khan (rule by 1312 to 1340 years).
7. Timur’s power
Timur (Timur Lang, Iron Khromets) was famous conqueror of the land, whose name was on the lips of Europeans as Tamerlane (1336 - 1405), who was born in Kesh (modern Karshi, "Green City"), in south of Samarkand in Transoxiana (area of modern Uzbekistan between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya).
Father of Timur, Taragai was a descendant of Genghis - Khan, leader of the Mongol-Turkic tribe Barlas (genus in the tribe of Mongols Chagatais) and descendant of Karachar Noyon, who was close-feudal landlord in Mongolia in the Middle Ages.
Timur Tamerlane destroyed the city of Delhi, which was restored for about a century. The capital of Ak - Orda (Golden Horde), the army of Timur demolished to the ground in 1395. Timur completely destroyed the Golden Horde.
According to data of Yuri Tumkovsky
http://www.vivl.ru/tamerlan/tamer.php
Timurid Empire is a power of Timur, and subsequently, khanate, united by the youngest son of Timur after his death (1405). Golden Horde forces led by Mamai Khan in 1380 were defeated on the Kulikovo field from Russian troops of Prince Dmitri Donskoi. The rulers of the Horde and the Timurids did not attack Rus’, but after a collision of Mamai with Dmitri Donskoi, Tokhtamysh Jochi Khan seized power in the Golden Horde. He made trips to the Russian land, burned Moscow, invaded in Mawarannahr and the Caucasus. Probable origin of Tohtamysch Khan is Turkic.
Timur defeated Tokhtamysh military expeditions against the Golden Horde, and subjected it to looting and destruction.
After Timur's death (1405), in 1428, the power in East Desht-i Qipchaq was taken in hand by Abulkhair Khan from a dynasty of shaybanidys. Descendants of Urus Khan created in XV century on the territory of the White Horde Kazakh Khaganate. Abulkhair Khan made an alliance with Russia. Thus, to the middle of the XV century the Golden Horde (the White Horde) broke up to White and Nogai Hordes, Siberian, Kazan, Crimean and Astrakhan, Kazakh, Oirat Khanates. Right to the throne had only the descendants of Genghis Khan. Khanates subsequently joined to Russia.
8. 18th century - the struggle of the Kazakh people with Dzhungars. In 1725-1727 years, protecting the city of Turkestan is the capital of Kazakhs, together with Abylay Khan Bogenbay-batyr headed the Kazakh militia against Dzhungars, whereby they were expelled from Turkestan and Sauran for Dzhungar Alatau. In 1756-1758 years Bogenbay-batyr entered into great battle under Talky with Chinese troops who for the first time had come in East Turkistan. In this fight he inflicted a major defeat to the Chinese and pursued them to Urumqi.
Many historians agree that the Kyrgyz migrated to Kyrgyzstan after the victory of Kazakhs and Kyrgiz qver Dzhungars who began to attack the Khanates on the territory of Central Asian.
Name of the Yenisei River corresponds to the Turkic - Enesai - Mother River. Villages of Yenisei Kyrgyz still exist. Kyrgyz are related peoples with the Buryats, Altaian, Chukchi, Nenets.
Tyumen comes from the word “Tomen”-“low”, the word “Fog” is too similar to the word Tomen.
Name the Saratov city undoubtedly comes from the words saryat - yellow horse. Names of villages, towns gives important information about the history, which has repeatedly rewritten even in the near retrospect, however, these names are always changed.
During the time of the Horde, and in the earlier history, the cities never were named as a horse, donkey or an apple. After the spread of the influence of the Mongol Empire, villages in Eurasia ruled by the bais. In Chinese, bai is a great. Bais urged people in their faith. Subsequently, the names of settlements changed.
Village Kaji - Sai, in this area called Haji - Bai. Cholpon – Ata city, previously called Cholpon - Bai. Likely early name of Saratov is Sarybai. The name of the Lake Baikal, from bai (cul, kel) is the great lake.
Orenburg’s name probably comes from the Turkic words - oryn Bor - place of chalk. Aktobe is from words ak tobe, white hill.
Many historians believe that the Kyrgyz and Kazakh languages used differed only of dialects areas. At present there are significant differences between the Kyrgyz and Kazakh languages.
For example, the Kazakhs word shashtaras is hairdresser, in Kyrgyz hairdresser now sounds like - chach tarach.
Name Chu River comes from the Turkic word Shu, it is noise. In Kyrgyz pronunciation, it sounds like Chu that dissonant in Chinese - and the Kazakh language is not contrary to the euphony to Chinese.
Mongolian language is much farther from the Turkic languages, which are very similar, probably because the formation of the Turkic tribes had already started from the 6th century, there was considerable inter-tribal communication.
About the Ottoman Empire,
http://www.world-history.ru/countries_a ... /2200.html
9. Kyrgyz – kaysaks are the ancestors of the modern Kyrgyz and Kazakhs, who with Russian troops took part in repelling the invasion of Napoleon's troops to Russia.
According to Galina Naumova, who cites data from the newspapers of that time, "Kirghiz, having learned about the violent invasion of the French in the borders of Russia, were equally zealous and true sons of the fatherland, as well as other fellow citizens in the whole space of the Russian empire."
Galina Naumova leads statements of historians and members of the Patriotic War, A.I. Mahaylovsky – Danilevsky “Nothing was left towns and villages where no flared would love for the fatherland. All waited only commandment to go without exception. All the tribes of immeasurable Russian Empire merged into one soul, and, despite of the difference of manners, customs, climate, adverbs, faith, have proven that they are all native feelings for one another ".
A lot of data about the history of the World War II in 1812, retained Nikolai Ivashkevich, he is colonel of the KGB of the USSR.
Galina Naumova describes, "Total Muslim nations gave to the Russian army during World War II about 25,000 fighters - continues the story Nikolai Silvestrovich - According to my calculations, It was attended by 10-11 thousand of Kazakhs. Unfortunately, during the Soviet period, when the whole history rewritten with a clean slate, it destroyed much of the data about people and their heroes are the participants of the war in 1812 year. I collected this information bit by bit; the wars in the history of different nations are my hobby. I note that a lot of Kazakhs fought in the Bashkirian and the Cossack departments.
For example, Kazybai (Nikolai) Chernysh was born in 1770 year. His parents died and Kazybai was raised by Cossacks. In the service he joined as the Cossack, a year later in 1788 year received the rank of Cossack captain. Also he was at war with mountaineers in the Caucasus, and participated in war with Turks in 1807-1811 years. In 1812 year he commanded the four Cossack regiments. Kazybai distinguished himself in the Tarutinsk battle, for which he was awarded by the Order of St. Anne of the first degree. For successful prosecution of Napoleonic departments receding from Russia, he received the Order of Saint George. In 1814year, he fought in France in Saint-Dizier, Brieine, and La Rothiere and died under the walls of Paris.
Or, there is one more unknown Kazakh hero Akim Bulatov. He is also pupil of Cossacks. He was born in 1773 year. He was hired in 1792 year. In 1794 year was a member of the storming of Prague. In 1807year, he fought with the French near Gelsberg, for which he was awarded by the Order of St. George. In 1812 year, as the head of the crew of the third cavalry corps, he participated in many rearguard battles (battles undertaken in order to delay the advancing enemy and thus provide the main forces retreat). Then he fought in the group of the Adjutant- General Golenishchev-Kutuzov at Velizh, Vitebsk, Zvenigorod, during the liberation of Moscow, and died during the pursuit of the enemy to the Russian borders.
For heroism in the battle of Borodino, Kazakh warrior Mailybaev-uli was awarded by a silver medal, and the foreman of the first regiment Teptyar Karynbay Zyndagul-uli had medal on a blue ribbon. In 27 of July in 1812 year Kazakh soldiers Murat Kulshoran-uli and Erish Azamat –uli caused a stir in battles near villages Malaevo Bog and Levi.
In the battles at Ramonova heroically were fought soldiers Boranbay Shuashabay-uli and Captain Yksan Aubakir-uli. For heroism in the battle under Viaz'ma the first captain of Teptyar Regiment Saghit Hamit-uly was awarded by the Order of St. Anne of the third degree. The Kazakh Narynbay Zhanzhigit-uli who battling in a part of the Bashkir regiment, for the heroism became the full gentleman of an award of Georgy. In structure of the Bashkir regiment Amenbaybatyr-uli soldier and poet battled also.
Zhanzhigit-uli and Baybatyr-uli, were participating in storm of the cities of Leipzig and Glogau, then joined with the Russian military units directed by the general Bennigsen for defeat the French troops had retreated to the city of Erfurt. Soldiers of this regiment, in 18of March, 1814 year one of the first entered in the French capital.
The native from young Kazakh zhuzh Jacob (Zhakupov) Belyakov comprising third Orenburg regiment took part in the Russian-Turkish war, having received the award from Kutuzov.
Slightly later the third Orenburg Cossack regiment already under Zhakup Belyakov's command was in vanguard of armies of Bennigsen, and later acted as part of Seslavin's guerrilla case, fought near Leipzig, Weimar, Hanau, Mezieres, La Rothiere. By the way, the known Kazakh poet Zhayau Musa was also the participant of Patriotic war. After war he got this nickname - Zhayau, i.e. pedestrian. When he returned from the war to his homeland, he was asked where he fought. Musa said that in the infantry (Zhayau asker). Relatives and neighbors didn't understand him and laughed. For the people who weren't representing wars without a horse, it seemed a joke or even a jeer. Allegedly since then for the poet the nickname Pedestrian Musa was attached.
East cupids
"Not only ancient sons of Russia - wrote the participant of events of 1812 year S. N. Glinka, but also nomadic people, and those, who along with natural Russians were ready to die for the Russian land.”
As not all Kazakhs passed army training which there passes the active armed forces some of them didn't participate in regular fights. Together with the Cossacks they did flanking detours, attacked convoys, - Nikolai Silvestrovich tells. - I know about one case when the Kazakh riders very strongly frightened French. They covered the other troops of moving army and, and when they saw the French, they have released several hundred arrows. Those Frenchmen who remained alive long remembered unseen warriors with amazing weapons. And after this case they started calling horsemen as the eastern Kazakh cupids.
Many Kazakhs died on the Borodino field. Immediately after this battle, during preparation of counterattack of the Russian army,Kazakhs, Tatars, Bashkirs were part of the mobile cavalry groups, operated in the rear of Napoleon's troops.
In September, 1812 year during counterattack preparation when the main forces of the Russian army were concentrated in Tarutino, acutely felt the need for replenishment. In these days Kazakhs together with Tatars and Bashkirs formed almost 30 regiments.
Throughout the fighting military forces, which included Kazakh horsemen were in the hottest spots of World War II. Already at flight of French from Russia as a part of the corps of the Lieutenant-General Essen Kazakh-Bashkir-Tatar cavalry pursued Napoleon's decaying army around Dropchin on both river banks Bug.
In addition, cavalry participated in the expulsion of the French from Hamburg, Berlin, Weimar, Frankfurt am Main and other German cities. In Weimar, the soldiers met with the German writer and thinker I.V. Goethe and presented to him a bow and arrows and saz syrnay (Kazakh national wind musical instrument).
Denis Davydov wrote about Kazakhs "Fateful old times his tests demonstrate that these people are rich with vivifying forces that it woke up after the Tatar yoke with new forces and glory. We do not know in what political form in the future will put on this giant, but it is certain that it, as always, is our neighbor, and we care about how it would treat us. "
Author is Galina Naumova
http://www.centrasia.ru/newsA.php?st=1191569100
The founders of the formation of national states in the territory of the former USSR were V.I. Lenin and J.V. Stalin. National statehood was formed in the USSR from 1924 to 1991 years. V.I. Lenin insisted on the creation of national states. His work "On the self-determination of nations" was the basis for the creation of the USSR, where each republic had their own ministries, departments. Thus, national statehood was developing.
10. In the 20th century, after the October Revolution in 1917year, the Russian Federation was formed, which became the basis for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the formation of which is described in 1924 year.
The people of the Soviet Union reflected aggression of Germany, Romania and Italy in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 – 1945 years. The heaviest losses in war were suffered by the Russian people.
Against the countries of the fascist coalition, all people of Russia, including - about 4 million Turkic fighters, from which about 500 thousand people were killed, fought at war.
The number of deaths from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the Great Patriotic War:
Russian 5,756,000 people .......... 66.56% of the total loss of our army
Ukrainians .......... 1377.4 15.93%
Belarusians 252.9 .......... 2.92%
Tatars 187.7 .......... 2.17%
Jews 142.5 .......... 1.65%
Kazakhs 125.5 .......... 1.45%
Uzbeks 117.9 .......... 1.36%
Armenians 83.7 .......... 0.97%
Georgians 79.5 .......... 0.92%
Mordvins 63.3 .......... 0.73%
Chuvash 63.3 .......... 0.73%
Azerbaijanis 58.4 .......... 0.68%
Moldovans 53.9 .......... 0.62%
Bashkirs 31.7 .......... 0.37%
Kirghiz 26.6 .......... 0.31%
Udmurt 23.2 .......... 0.27%
Tajiks 22.9 .......... 0.26%
Turkmens 21.3 .......... 0.25%
Estonians 21.2% .......... 0.25
Buryats 13 .......... 0.15%
Komi 11.6 .......... 0.13%
Latvians 11.6 .......... 0.13%
Lithuanians 11.6 .......... 0.13%
Peoples of Dagestan 11.1 .......... 0.13%
Ossetians 10.7 .......... 0.12%
Poles 10.1 .......... 0.12%
Karels 9.5 .......... 0.11%
Other nationalities 49.4 .......... 0.57%
Total: 8,647,500 people died
http://www.utug.tv/2011/05/lyudskie-pot ... 1941-1945/
In fact, the number of irrecoverable losses of the Soviet Army during the Great Patriotic War still includes about 4.4 million people, who were captured and missing.
Unfortunately, the process of disintegration of the USSR occurred without making mutual agreements on borders.
In ascertaining act of collapse of the USSR participated leaders of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Belarus after the war had its representation in the UN.
I. V. Stalin distinguished between two ways of development languages.
The first way is “the development from ancestral languages to tribal languages, from tribal languages to the languages of people and from languages of peoples to national languages» [9]. The second way is specified by I.V. Stalin in his answer to companion Sanzheev where it is spoken: "There are also inverse processes, when uniform language of the nationality which hasn't become still the nation in force of lack of necessary economic conditions for development, crashes due to the collapse of the state of this nation,and local dialects which have not yet grind in a single language, alive and give rise to the formation of separate and distinct languages "[10].
http://www.kyrgyz.ru/?page=61

In particular, there is such opinion expressed that modern dialect distinctions and the facts, allow making the following strong belief in the history of the formation of the public Kyrgyz language:
1) Public lines of modern Kyrgyz language developed in centuries very remote from us, at least five hundred years ago, and not on the present territory of the Kyrgyz people resettlement;
2) After the XV century, i.e. after moving of the Kyrgyz tribes in the modern territory, between three Kyrgyz dialects up to the Great October Socialist revolution there was a process of gradual divergence, which nearly led to a complete collapse of the Kyrgyz language.

The main founder of Kyrgyz language is considered Konstantin Kuzmich Yudakhin.
Dictionary of K.K.Yudahina had a significant impact on the phonetics and vocabulary of the Kyrgyz language, which gained its writing, but far removed from the modern Kazakh language.
http://www.twirpx.com/file/167595/
Sources: (numbering links stored here)
[8] J. Stalin. Marxism and Problems of Linguistics,
The publishing house "Pravda", 1950, p.18.
[9] J. Stalin. Marxism and Problems of Linguistics, pp.
[10] Stalin. Marxism and Problems of Linguistics, pp. 37-38.
Conclusions.
1. From 6-8 millenniums BC on the territory of modern states – Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Scythians lived, presumably to 3-5 centuries AD. Buddha is Sak (Zak), presumably haplogroup is R1a1. Buddha images kept in Afghanistan.
The Celtic - Iberian expansion (R1b1) associated with the retreat of the glacier from central Europe. Thus there were migrations of the people with genetics (I) - to the east, I1 - in the northern direction, I2 - in southern. Origin of the people (R1b1) is Africa.
Scythians (R1a1), Sakas, rusaks went to the north, into the foresters, after the invasion of the Huns in the 3rd century BC. The movement R1a1, was probable and in east direction, towards Mongolia.
Russian origin is from RU - Saks, Rusaks. Scythians, who went further to the west, in the direction of Prussia - Pru-saks, Prusaks. Genetically, the Huns correspond to ancestors of modern Bashkirs (R1b1).
The origin of the word Bashkirs - (bash, bass) is the main (kir, kyr) is input, offensive. The incidence of group R1b1 in Russian, Kazakh, Uzbek - about 5%, despite the fact that Russian are considered some ethnic Bashkirs and the descendants of Western immigrants.
The Scythians spoke a language similar to modern Turkic languages. But Russian people speak a language much closer to the language of the South Slavs - (I2), whose homeland is the Balkans. Northern Slavs (I1) borrowed the Romance languages, as well as common descendants of lines R1a1, living in Germany, Norway, and Scandinavia. The descendants of the Scythians, Mongols, Persians, Arabs, Chinese - including Tatars, Turkics, Buryats, Bashkirs, Turks, speak the languages close to the language of the Scythians.
The peoples of the ancient Slavs, Europeans (I) and the ancient Jews (J) formed about 18,000 years ago, during the early warming. These people are related. Probable formation of J1 is Qatar, Yemen, and J2 is Crete. I -Mediterranean, Sardinia. R1b1 expansion to the north caused migration I1, I2 in an easterly direction, I1 - northeast, I2 - south.
Frequency of occurrence of I2ain Russia is more than 10%. General Statistics I - about 20%. In the southern Russian Cossacks is more than 20%.
It is possible that the Cossacks – the origin ka(Zaki), ka(saki).
The Jews, the frequency of group J is about 75%, as the Jews - Ashkenazi (origin - Germany), and the Jews - the Sephardim (origin - Spain). The Jews - Ashkenazi present haplogroup R1a1 (about 10%), Jews - the Sephardim - Western European haplogroup R1b1 (less than 10%).
It is likely that the ancient Slavs slavery existed, (Slave - slaves). The probable origin of the word Israel is IZ (accordance) - RA (lord) - el (people) (people of lords). If in Sweden there was not slavery, but feudalism existed in Russia until 1861year. In England, for hunting of commoners in estates of misters, the death penalty relied.
The origin of Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, - about a half - is caused by the haplogroup R1a1a7, about 50% which has a Scythian origin, from R1a1. Only 20% of Russians are ancient Slavs, other probable primogenitors of Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians - the people of Southern Siberia, the Mongolian component C at Russians, Tatars less than 1%, about a half of the Russian people have the Indo-European origin of R1a1, at Tatars - in various selections has, 30 - 35%.
Tatars have a line N2, N2, R1b1. Ancient Slavic language was predominant in the formation of the Russian language. Indo-European languages are more or less similar.
Scythian language was closer to Turkic languages.
2. In 5-6 centuries - the territory of modern Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, was a kingdom of Ephtalites.
Expansion of the Huns had a direction from the west, the statistics associated with the Hun lines R1b1, G, J1, J2 which present in modern Bashkirs (R1b1), Armenians, Georgians, North Caucasian peoples (J1, J2, G1), Kazakhs (C, G, R1a1 ).
Indo-European’s lines R1a1 (Scythians, Sakas). Indo-European R1a1, unlike nomads engaged in handicrafts, agriculture, stalled keeping of animals. Mongolian Kazakhs lines are R1a1, C3c (nomads), the Chinese lines - N (Russian, Tatar), O (Naiman, Uighurs, Uzbeks). Naiman have about a quarter statistics of G1 (Argyns).
Turkic ethnos was formed on the basis of Indo-European statistics R1a1, statistics Huns, Arabs, Ephtalites, Persians.
Northern Russian (N3) and Turks (N2, N3, O, C) are of Chinese, South - Siberian, Mongolian origin. Haplogroup R1b1, G, J of Turkic formed from the Huns, who came from the west and won the Scythian kingdom.
Balts - natives large territory including the Baltic countries, part of Belarus. In some Turkic languages, originating from the language of the Scythians, Balt is an ax. The generality of the Baltic tribes, which number more than three (the number of the Baltic republics), has genetic similarities with the Russian. So, for male haplogroups R1a1, from the Baltic peoples -is up to 40%, Belarusian, Russian is about 50%.
The Celtic - Iberian haplogroup R1b1 among Czechs and Slovaks - 35%, Poles - 12-16%, Latvians - 15% of Estonians - 9%, Belarusians, Russian - about 5%, Ukrainians - up to 20%.
The Grand Princedom of Lithuania is East European state which existed from the middle of the XIII centuries to 1795 year in the territory of modern Belarus and Lithuania, as well as Ukraine, Russia, Latvia, Poland and Estonia.
Since 1385 year the Grand Princedom of Lithuania was in Unia with Poland, and from 1569 - the Unia of Lublin in the Sejm within the Polish- Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the XIV-XVI centuries, Great Princedom of Lithuania was a rival Moscow princedom in the struggle for supremacy in the Eastern Europe.
It was legally abolished by the Constitution of May 3, 1791year. Finally it ceased to exist after the third partition of Poland in 1795 year. By 1815 year, the entire territory of the former princedom became part of the Russian Empire.
http://statehistory.ru/1184/Velikoe-kny ... -i-karta-/
The city's name Tartu comes from the word bison, tarvas. The settlement appeared during the formation of the Ephtalites state in the south, after the capture of Scythian kingdom by the Huns. Chud, Ests are the tribe having Finno - Ugrian origin N1c (Y), the earlier history of these tribes refers to southern Siberia. Chud, Ests are tribes that apply and to the Russian northerners.Great similarity Balts with the Russian have in similar statistics R1a1. Scythians R1a1 migration period corresponded invasion of the Huns, and Chud, Ests lived in the Baltic States before. Latvians have more Celtic - Iberian statistics R1b1. Estonians statistics R1b1 close to Russian. After the Revolution, Estonians received national definition, until 1918 year, the city of Tartu called St. George. City of St. George was founded by Yaroslav the Wise in 1030 year.
About Tartu city’s history
http://www.ancientcity.ru/goroda-severn ... tartu.html
Genghisides line has statistics haplogroup C; find it at these haplogroups of modern Mongols, Kazakhs - up to 60%. In Russian, Tatar, this group has less than 1% of Statistics. Significant statistics C are among Kalmyks, Yakuts.
3. Since 720 year the formation of the Turkic Khanate. With 720 years – the Turkic people are Altaic tribes who fought with Jujans, the northern Chinese. With the victory, the Turkic people left the children and women, and adult men Jujans destroyed. Turkomen defeated Sogdiieftalits, made peace, and were at war with the Persians, and defeated the Byzantine alliance.
4. In 6-7 centuries, the territory of modern Kazakhstan was a part of the Western Turkic and Eastern Turkic Khaganate. The territory of Kyrgyzstan in 8-9 centuries was as a part of the Karluk Khaganate.
5. The Samanid state from 819 - to 1005 years associated with the invasion of the Arabs and Persians - in the south. In 965 year, Prince Svyatoslav with Oguz-Turkics conquered the Khazar Khaganate. Volga Bulgaria has been won in a campaign of Prince Vladimir in 985 by princely retinue of Prince Vladimir and Turkic - Oguz.
988 year - the baptism of Kievan Rus’.
6.The Golden Horde existed from 1224 – 1395years and was the part of the Mongol Empire from the beginning of the formation of the Golden Horde, in 1266 year. In 1266 year under Khan Mangu Timur gained its full independence, retaining only the formal dependence on the imperial center of Mongolia.
Mongol conquerors, Genghis Khan, Timur Tamerlane had Indo-European origin, R1a1.
The Golden Horde was defeated by Timur and capitals Sarai – Batu, Sarai - Berke, were destroyed by Timur for 10 years until his death in 1395 year.
7. Timur’s Power. Timur’s war with the Golden Horde, with Tokhtamysh, Samanids, Khazars, Bulgars, with the Caucasus countries. Disintegration of the Golden Horde. After the collapse of formation khanates which joined to Russia.
After Timur's death in 1428 year, the authorities in East Desht-i Qipchaq took over Abulkhair Khan from shaybanids dynasty, which marked the beginning of the Kazakh state. Power of Timur existed until 1450 year. Probable haplogroup of Abulhairh is R1a1, all rulers of Hordes are descendants of Genghis Khan have the most likely haplogroup Genghis Khan - R1a1. With Mongolian quest lines in Russia almost give nothing - their statistics in Russian, Tatar - less than 1%.
Abulkhair Khan II, who lived in the 18th century, was a descendant of Genghis.
Clashes Scythians with the Huns began after the victorious invasion of the Huns (3rd century BC). Further struggle was associated with the formation of the Mongol Empire in the 7th century, and was a reaction to the conquest of the Turkic Khaganate by Khazars, Bulgars, Arabs, Persians and other peoples who came from the Middle East, from the west. Tribes, which haplogroup J1, J2, G2, I1, I2, may have come from central Europe,from Balkans, the Middle East during the expansion R1b1to the north ,glacier retreat, i.e. approximately 13,000 years ago.
Interaction tribes I2 (Slavs), R1a (Scythians), led to the formation of the Russian people, which subsequently began to carry and representatives of other haplogroups.
8. In the 18th century, the Kazakhs have defended the independence from China, defeating Dzungars. After defeating Dzhungars transmigration of Yenisei Kyrgyz on the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan began. Khaganate, which remained from the Golden Horde, joined Russia.
9. In the 19th century, the Russian people, together with all the peoples of Russia, to repel an invasion of French troops. History shows that after repelling aggression, French language prevailed in the salons of the Lord in Russia, and that talking educated gentlemen in Russian was indecent. Only in 1861, in Russian serfdom was abolished.
Probable genetic origin of the Romanovs is R1b1 (immigrants from Western Europe).
10. 1917 year is the abdication of Tsar Nicholai the Second from the throne. Great October Revolution (1917), the beginning of the USSR (1924).
Administrative delimitation SSR republics that formed nation states - Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the Russian Federation.
Repel the aggression of Hitler coalition (1941 – 1945 years). The biggest losses were among the the Russian people. Stalin did not concentrate the troops before the war, escaped unequal collision that would lead to the destruction of the Soviet troops. Heroism of the Russian people and other peoples of the USSR, the Allies decided to help the outcome of the Second World War. Stalin called this war as the Great Patriotic War.
Probable haplogroup of Hitler is R1b1, according to the DNA of his relatives.
Probable origin of Stalin is G2a (argyn). On Stalin's orders, information about the remains of Yaroslav, Tamerlane and other rulers were kept secret; the Yaroslav’s remains were removed in Kiev in 1939 year, and Tamerlane - near Samarkand in 1940 year. Kept secret the origin of Stalin and Lenin.
Peoples of the North Caucasus, were having origins of the ancient Semites (Chechens, Ingush) moved during the Great Patriotic War in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan ordered by Stalin. Historical facts show that people with the surname Dzhugashvili were repressed during the Stalin personality cult. The name Dzhugaschvili consists of words Jug (Jew) - shvili (son).
In 1991 there was a collapse of the USSR, and the formation of nation-states.
Genetic statistics do not reflect the advantages or disadvantages of the people; they testify to the history of the people and confirm or refute these or other hypotheses.
Aigul
 
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