Aryan footprint among Turkic nations

Aryan footprint among Turkic nations

Сообщение Aigul » 29 мар 2013, 14:49

Aryan footprint among Turkic nations
Zh.Sabitov: CA-NEWS (KG) - An Aryan footprint among Turkic nations Ref:
The main purpose of this article is to answer the question, why in many Turkic-speaking nations there are a high percentage of haplogroup R1a1. They include Altai, Kirghiz, Khakassian and other Asian and Central Asian nations. To understand from where there could appear R1a1, let's make an excursion into the history of the region.
Nations of Scythian world
Scythian-Saka tribes were likely heirs of Andronov culture, and quite possibly were the carriers of haplogroup R1a1.
Scythians began to appear in historical sources, for the first time, since the end of 8th century BC. Approximately 720 years BC, Scythians came to the Pontic steppes from the East, displacing the Cimmerians from their homeland. Cimmerians ("gimmiri" in Assyrian sources), beating the Black Sea through the Bosporus invaded in Asia Minor, and the Scythians (known in Assyrian sources as "Ishkuza"), through the Caucasus invaded in Iran and fought with Assyria. Their advance was stopped by Sargon II (722-705). In 676 year, the new advance of the Scythians was stopped by the Assyrian king Esarhaddon. [1]. But about 657 year, Scythians won Sardi, plundering Lydian kingdom. [2]
According to Herodotus, the Scythians ruled in Asia during 28 years (653-625), holding in its dependence Midia and other countries. [2] One of the Scythians of this period, 2600 years ago, could become an ancestor of one of the clans R1a1 in Anatolia. Exactly this date shows the consideration of set of 36 nine marker haplotypes R1a1 in Anatolia, with the ancestral haplotype [3]
It is interesting that set of 26 haplotypes of Russia, Ukraine and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan) converges to the same ancestral haplotype
that is identical to haplotype above (supposed Scythian) and shows the lifetime of a common ancestor 4,500 years ago. [4] Naturally, 4500 years ago, there were not Scythians as such, but their common ancestor can be seen from this comparison of haplotypes.
Later Scythians went to war against Egypt, where Pharaoh Psammetih I was able to buy off from them. In 612 BC, Scythians, as part of Coalition against the Assyria, took Ninevia, thus putting the end to the Assyria state. Part of the Scythians settled down in the Middle East in the Beth-Sana, which was called Scythopolis and inhabitants of which, at the beginning of the first century AD, knew their Scythian origin [1].
The king of the Medes Cyaxares could put the end to Mussels dependence from the Scythians. He invited many Scythians, gave them drink that they become drunk and killed them. [5] After this, the Scythians were forced to leave the Asia and return to the Black Sea. [6]
The data about the Scythians are contained in two groups of sources: ancient and Persian. Herodotus, speaking of the Scythians, uses this term as applied to the-Black Sea Scythians. However, he gives the following words: "This tribe was called amyurgiyskie Sakas, because Persians called all the Scythians as Sakas." It follows that the ethnonym “Sak” was synonymous of the term “Skiff”.
According to the Persian sources there were three groups of Sakas:
1. Saks - tiia-paradaraya (Saks, who lived at sea) - Black Sea Scythians in the Greek sources. As is known, they came from East, pushing Cimmerians to the South. It was this group that invaded in Asia Minor and in the Middle East.
2. Saks-tigrahauda (Saks, who wore pointed hats). They were known among the Greeks as Saks-ortokaribantii. Scientists still argue about localization of this tribe, but, most of all, the aria of their resettlement was the south of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tashkent region.
3. Saks-haomavarga (Saks, who cooked drink “haoma”). Haoma (“Soma” in Indian mythology) – is a ritual drink in honor of the eponymous god , that has a narcotic, hallucinogenic properties 1. Haomavarg saks resided mostly in territory of modern Tajikistan, and were known in Greek sources as amyurgiyskie Sakas.
In the sources was mentioned another group of Saks, Saks - tiya para Sugdam (Saks, who lived at the Soghdom), but about it little is known. [7] Later, after a few centuries, there was the tribe called sakarauki (brilliant Saks).
Necessary to think that the relationship between Saks and India were very strong: in the time of Seleucids many Saka tribes invaded to the South, founding small kingdoms in India and Pakistan. It may be noted the fact that the Buddha (Gautama Shakyamuni) came from the Shakya tribe which probably was one of the Sakian clans that caught in India. The fact of the identity of the Sakian god - Haoma and Indian god - Soma confirms cultural proximity of Saks and Hindus. Saks were the people, against which were directed antidevovskie inscriptions of Persian rulers. Necessary to think that they, like the Indians kept the faith in devas, in opposed to the Persians, who were followers of Ahura Mazda (ahura, asuras).
Herodotus speaks of the age of Scythians as follows: "According to the Scythian stories, their people are the youngest one. Because since the first king Targitai until the invasion in their land of Darius passed 1000 years [8], we can assume that the Scythians as an ethnic group emerged about 3500 years ago. Herodotus also mentions about self-name of the Scythians in the following words: "All together they are called Skolots, i.e. Royal. Hellenes also called them as Scythians "[8].
Shall present the data of Herodotus about Savromat tribe. They resided to the East of the Black Sea Scythians, in the area of Western Kazakhstan, and were a tribe, wedged themselves between the Central Asian Saks and Black Sea Scythians. According to Herodotus, Savromats were descendants of Amazon women who migrated from Asia Minor, and young Scythians, who became fathers of Savromat. [9] Savromats were the ancestors of the Sarmatians and Alans, and other smaller tribes. Savromat culture differed from the Scythian, but its haplogroup is likely to be identical to the Scythians.
The fate of the Scythians was sad. In the Black Sea, they became to endure defeat from the Sarmatians, and in the end, lost its independence. Is known that in Central Asian Saks were conquered and became part of the Usun people . [10] As for the Sarmatian tribes, many of them participated in the Great Migration. Sarmatian tribes Alans (yasy), roksalany, Yazygs, aorsy settled all over the Europe from Caucasus and Hungary to the North Africa. In the era of of the Great Migration the Alans were single non-German people, who created in Western Europe, a large number of settlements and several government entities. Only in France and Nothern Italy today is known about 300 cities and settlements with Alanian names.
Alans also lived in the territory of modern Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Romania and other countries. Later Alans again migrated, and in Hungary there is a historical region - Yasshag where lived ethnic Alans.
Speaking about the Scythian tribes we must also mention about Massagets, Dayans and Parns. According to Klyashtorn S G [11], Dayan tribes and massagets were one tribe. Later Parns, one of the daian tribes headed by Arshakid kin, were able to establish the Parthia state in Iran .
Kangly (Kanguy, Kangha)
Although in different sources Kangha country appears from 14 century BC, the rise of the "House of Kahn" begins from the 03- 02 centuries BC. Possessions of Yan (Sarmatians) and Yantsay (Alans) were subordinated to this country of 600 thousand people [12] at the end of the 2nd century BC. Kang-kü state with its capital Bityan was located near the Syrdarian area. In 6 century BC kangyuy tribes were included in Turkic Kaganate where were known as Badjanak and kangar2.
In the middle of eighth century, Badjanak (Kangly) were driven out from their homeland by Oghuz tribes. Part of Kangly were forced to emigrate to the West, some obeyed to Oguz, the rest went to the Kipchaks. Departing to the west, Badjanaks, who were pushed from the east by enemies, come close to the borders of the Byzantine Empire and Kievan Rus. In the chronicles they became known as the Pechenegs (modified form from Badjanak). The descendants of those Pechenegs were later driven out in Eastern Europe after the defeat that was massacre carried by Cumans (Kipchaks). The descendants of the same tribe Kangly who remained among Oguzes and Kipchaks remained to this day among the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Bashkirs and others.
Dinlinsk problem (R1a and R1b)
In 1909, Grum - Grzhimaylo published an article "Blond race in Central Asia", in which, based on Chinese sources, was of the opinion that at the beginning of Chinese history white men were widespread in Asia.
In 1959, in the tidings of the All-Union Geographical Society of the USSR (№ 1) L N Gumilev published an article, where based on the data of paleoanthropology and history, conducted an audit of Grum - Grzhimailian hypothesis. Let us quote an excerpt from it: "Debez believes that dolichocephalic South Siberian type, i.e. dinlins, is ancestor of Europeans, "close to the Cro-Magnon", and its similarity with the "northern type" explains by convergence. Indeed, this type goes back to antiquity, predating the formation time of the Aryan linguistic unity (the middle of the III millennium). However, he notes europoid brachicranial type, mixed with Mongoloid narrow-faced type, and this mixture gets to Siberia from China approximately in the XVII century. BC ("Karasuktsy"). At this time, the Chinese history ascertains the eviction from China to the north of supporters of the overthrown of the Xia Dynasty. In 1764 BC, Tsarevich Shun Wei and his companions settled with the nomads and took their lifestyle. The legend is confirmed by archeology, but they both support the hypothesis of Grumm - Grzhimailo. Obviously, brachicranial Europeoid type was brought from China by di. Another variety of di - Usuns - also short head "[13].
The basic conclusions of LN Gumilev were:
1. The ancient white race in Central Asia really existed. South Siberian dolichocephalic (dinlins) and Northern China brachycephalic (di) treated each other as the race of the second order of the European racial barrel.
2. Dinlins, being a branch that rejected yet in the Paleolithic, did not have the direct connection with the Europeans,
3. Steppe dinlins became part of Huns, giving them several Europeoid features (high noses, fluffy beard), and steppe descendants of di were usuns and tele. [13]
But we, based on new data of DNA genealogy, wanted to offer our interpretation of events.
We believe that an anthropological similarity of Europeans and Asian dinlins was the result not of convergence, and that the European carriers of haplogroup R1b were akin to the dinlins. Recall that one of the major haplogroups of Western European (and some Asian) populations is R1b. According to the AA Klesov, ancestor of European R1b come to Europe 4000-4500 years ago, and haplogroup itself appeared in the Asia 16,000 years ago. [14]
As a working hypothesis, we can assume that dinlins were carriers of R1b haplogroup, while the northern Chinese di tribes were owners of haplogroup R1a. As is known, di tribes and zhuns coexisted with the Chinese people. There is a very informed opinion that the Chinese chariots, together with animal style in art and some bronze instruments, were borrowed from north-western "barbarians" by Chinese. [15] L N Gumilev, characterizing the ancient population of Siberia and Mongolia, said:
"Dinlins inhabited the the Sayano-Altai mountains, Minusinsk depression and Tuva. Their type is characterized by the following features: the medium growth , often tall, well- build, elongated face, white color of skin with blush on the cheeks, blond hair, protruding nose, often aquiline and light eyes." These conclusions, that built on the basis of written sources, were confirmed in archeology. Sayano-Altai was homeland to Afanasevian culture 3, dating from about 2000 BC. Anthropologically afanasevian tribes were special race. They had "sharply protruding nose, relatively low face, low orbits, and wide forehead - all these signs say that they belong to the European trunk. From modern Europeans, afanasevian tribes differ by much more broad face 4. In this respect they are similar to the Upper Paleolithic skulls from Western Europe, i.e. with the Cro-Magnon type in the broad sense of the term. "
The inheritors of afanasevian tribes were tribes of Tagar culture lived till the III century BC. This suggests that afanasev-dinlins carried their culture through the ages, despite the invasion of foreigners.
Around 1200 year, in the Minusinsk steppes Andronov culture was replaced by new Karasuk culture that was brought by settlers from the south, from North China, from the banks of the Yellow River. For the first time Chinese style enters to Western Siberia. This is not just borrowing. Together with the new culture in burial grounds appears a new racial type - a mix of Mongoloids with Europeoids, at that Europeoids brahikrans and thin-faced Mongoloids belong to the "Far Eastern race of Asian barrel."
Such race formed in North China, in the era of Yangshao. Outwardly, its representatives resembled modern Uzbeks, who are also the product of mixing of Europoid and Mongoloid components. On the spot, they mixed in turn, but for us it is important to note that "to the South Siberia moved already mixed people. To the thin-faced southern Mongoloid was mixed Europeoid brachicranial type, whose origin is unclear, as well as its place in the systematics "....
Dinlins disappeared from the historical arena in the middle of the II century BC ... Thus dinlins were the people with whom mixed ancestors of the Huns that came from the south "[16].
I believe that through the Huns the haplogroup R1b was able to be in different Asian populations. As is well known, among the Huns aquiline nose was widespread.
Due to new data from DNA genealogy we can move an amendment in dinlin problem: Anthropological similarity of European R1b and Asian dinlins (Afanasiev culture) was the result not of convergence, but that European R1b are kindred with the dinlins.
Di and Tele (gaogyuy, Oguz) nation
Di people had neighbourship with the Chinese for many centuries; they were divided into many different tribes.
As suggested by L N Gumilev, Di tribes in the Greek sources were called Seri:
"Ptolemaeus on the territory of modern China puts two different people: Sina and Seri. Sina placed on the south from Seri tribes and named their capital - Tina that lies in the depths of the port Kattigary.
Ptolemy's map is approximate, if not to say that it is fantastic, that the identification of names is extremely difficult, but it is not important for our subject. Another thing is significant: that the Sina tribes are no doubt the genuine Chinese of Qing Empire, and they are not identified with Seri tribes, that supplied the silk- serikum to Parthia and Roman Empire. Seri tribes were mentioned earlier than Sina tribes, also in another context: the Greco-Bactrian king Evtidem about 200 years BC expanded his possessions in the East "to the possession of fauns (tsyans) and Seri tribes." Subsequently, when the silk trade established on the great trade way, the name "seri" was applied to the suppliers of silk in the Tarim swimming pool, and not to the Chinese themselves.
Next, even more important message about Seri tribes which Thompson regards as a "ridiculous", is based on the story of Ceylon ambassadors. According to them, seri - are the tall, red-haired and blue-eyed men who live behind Emod (Himalayas). "[17]
To us in this context are very interesting two tribes of di people : Baidi (white di) and Chidi (Red Di). Till the 636 year BC Baidi lived in Hesi with red di, but in a specified year were expelled by Chinese Prince Con Gun. About the Chi-di (red di) we subsequently hear a lot, but where did white di go ?
According to oral information, received from Alifbek Hiyshalov, L N Gumilev wrote that the Baidi - is the local name of mountain tribes of Ishkashim. Baidi now etymologized from the word "Bad" -means the wind, but this is an obvious reflection of unknown alien word. [18] Thus, LN Gumilev actual outputted the origin of Ishkashim tribes from white Di tribe that lived up to the 7th century BC in China.
The second tribe of Chi-di.

About the Chi-di or red Di, LN Gumilev, referring to the Bichurin, wrote: "Deeley were, apparently, closely related to di, because their second name is - Chi Di, i.e. red di .... In pure form, we do not know these people, but we meet them as the dominant component, especially in the tele tribes (perhaps the variation of Dili ethnonym), i.e. tribal group that included the Uighurs... Their relocation to the North - is a comparatively later event: in the III century BC they were separated from their countrymen in Sichuan and driven to the steppe, and in the IV century AD moved to the north to Dzungaria ... [17]
Chinese called these tribes - gaogyuy (high tele) or just tele, whereas they called themselves Oguz [19].
According to the legend, given by Chinese chroniclers, "The ancestor of gaogyuy people was the son of daughter of Hun ruler." Directly, with the Prince-founder were associated 6 genera (tribes), but noted that "at that time among gaogyuy tribes were another 12 names" [20].
Yet is known that seyanto (Kipchaks, one of the largest Tele tribes) by origin was the union of two tribes: Hun tribe - Yanto and ruling family - Se, which destroyed the top of Yanto tribe and seized power in the tribe. [21]. Perhaps Se – is Seri of Greek sources, or the same Chidi of Chinese sources.
Thus, we can summarize that the foundation of Tele tribes were Chi-di (red di) and individual Hunnish race. Tele tribes began to migrate to the West back in the 5th century. [20]
The tribal membership of Tele, that lived in Mongolia in the 7th century, looked like this [19]:
- Seyanto (Kipchaks);
- Uighurs;
- Tuba;
- Kurykan;
- Telenguts;
- Bugu;
- Bairku;
- Tongra;
- Hong.
The fate of these tribes formed in different ways:
1. Seyanto together with tyurkyut tribes 5 created the second Turkic Kaganate where they played the key role after tyurkyut tribes. In the 740-745 years, their Uighur relatives smashed Turkic Kaganate and seyanto fled to the west to Kimaks, where they became known as Kipchaks. [21] They are widely spread from the east of Kazakhstan to Eastern Europe. Kipchak tribe was a part of such peoples as Bashkirs, Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Kazakhs, Nogais, Kyrgyz, Crimean Tatars, etc.
2. Mongolia was owned by Uighurs, in 745-840 years , but Uighurs were defeated by Yeniseian Kyrgyz, and fled to Eastern Turkestan, where they mixed with autochthonous population, and gave the name to the new nation.
3. Tuba tribe under the name Tubalars (lar in Turkic languages - is the plural ending), resides on the left bank of the river Biya and on the north-west coast of Tele lake. It is a part of the northern Altai people. Perhaps this tribe gave rise to Tuva tribes.
Now we will try to reconstruct the events that led to the emergence of the second group R1b1b1, the age of which in Asia is estimated at 750-1225 years [23]. The group consists of Tuvinians, Uighurs and Kazakhs of Kipchak kin.
Up to 740 year, the representatives of the three nations lived together in Mongolia, but in the 740-745 years Uighurs smashed Tyurkut tribes and Seyanto. Seyanto fled to the West, where changed their name to the self-deprecating name Kipchak, that translates as empty, useless.

Perhaps, particularly to this time period, relates the life of ancestor for this group. Is not excluded that part of Seyanto tribe fled to the Tuba tribe, who lived near the Hubsugyl lake and others remained among Uighurs, and then, in 840 year, together with them migrated to the area of East Turkestan.
Another event, that shuffled the ethnic map of Eurasia and Kipchaks, could be the Mongol invasion.
Both events are suitable on time but the first version is preferable, because it meets fewer contradictions than the second version.
Let's continue the list about the other tribes given above:
4. Kurykans, according to one popular version, gave rise to the Yakut ethnic group.
5. Telenguts under the name of telengits, became a part of the southern Altai people.
6. Bugu - probably relates to the Kyrgyz tribe - Bug.
7. The fate of Tongra and Bairku tribes is unknown. Probably they were assimilated by Mongol tribes because they lived in close neighborhood with them.
8. Kun tribe in the middle of the 11th century, moved to the west to Kipchaks.
Addition to these Tele tribes can be noted such western nations as the Khazars, Barsils Bulgarians 6 [24], kimaki [25], Oguzes.
Around 463 year, to the West from Asia invaded Ogura, Saragura (white Ogurs) and Onogura tribes - in total there are ten Ogur tribes , in 466 year, these tribes defeated Hun -Akatsirs, putting the end of Huns. Later, on the basis of these Ogur tribes appeared a new ethnonym - Bulgar. In 480 year, Bulgarians actually saved the Byzantium from the invasion of the Ostrogoths, although in the 6th century, Bulgarians were depending on the invading Avars from Asia. In 635 year, the leader of Bulgarians - Kubrat was able to crush the Avarian domination in the Black Sea.
Founded by him the Bulgarian state existed shortly. His five sons divided the Bulgarian lands and the tribes, that led to the fact that the Khazars one by one were able to break all Bulgarians.

Part of the Bulgarians, led by Asparuh, went to the West, where in 679 year founded the Bulgarian Empire, on the Dunai river. As a result, Turkic speaking Bulgarians rather quickly disappeared into the mass of the Slavic population, leaving them their name. Another group of Bulgarians went to the North, where they founded the Volga Bulgaria. The Volga Bulgars consisted of two tribes: Suvar (Sabirs from Greek sources) and Esquel (Oguz tribe). [24] Volgian Bulgars later embraced Islam but Suvars did not want to convert to Islam and separated from the Volga Bulgars. As a result, Suvars became the ancestors of modern Chuvash people.

Bulgarians, who remained in the Caucasus, in the opinion of many researchers, marked the beginning of Balkar people (Kabardino-Balkaria).

After the defeat of the Uighurs in 840, to Kimaks had joined tribes such as Eymurs, Bayandurs, Tatars. Earlier in the 745 year, Kipchaks had joined to them, after the collapse of the Second Turkic khanate. Their state existed from 840 to the mid of 11th century. Kimak state ceased to exist due to the fact that the Kipchaks, gaining strength, were able to take the leadership among Kimaks in the middle of 11 century. [25]
Oguzes resided in Semirechie until the middle of the 8th century. In 746, there invaded Altaic Turkic tribe of Karluks. As a result of the 10-years struggle, part of Oguz tribes were forced to move to the west, in the Aral Sea region, displacing the Badjinaks (Kangly) who migrated to southern Russian steppes and became known there by the name of the Pechenegs.

In 965 between Kiev prince Svyatoslav and Oghuz dzhabgu (ruler) was concluded the Union against hazars that ended of the defeat of the Khazar Khaganate. In 985, Prince Vladimir, in alliance with Torquays (Oguzes) made a trip to the Volga Bulgars. [26]

In the middle of 11 century, under the pressure of Kipchaks, Oguzes were forced to split into two parts: one part went to the South and helped to Seljuks (Oghuz clan) to take power in the Middle East. Another part went to the west, where they, according to some researchers, initiated the Gagauz nation.
In 1054 Kipchaks first appeared in Russian chronicles, where they appear under the name of Kipchaks. In the 19th century, was advanced the idea that the word polovets comes from the Old Slavic word plava (straw), from this, poloviy means pale, palely straw color ) [27]. How a well-known historians wrote with the irony - "Russian chroniclers called Kipchaks, as white man."

Other names of Kipchaks are Armenian Hardiash, Turkic Kuman and Sary, Hungarian Paloch, Polish Plavians - have similar etymology and mean bright, white, etc. [27].

After the Mongol invasion, Kipchaks were scattered around the world: 40,000 Kipchaks, headed by Khan Kotyan, fled to Hungary, where they settled in historic areas of Nadkunshag (Big Cumania, Hung. Nagykunsag ;), that located to the east from the Solnok town along the flow of the Tisza, and Kishkunshag (Small Cumana, from Hung. Kiskunsag), which lies between the Danube and Tisza. The descendants of Kipchaks-Polovtsians in Hungary considered an ethnographic group called plavtsy. Among the Turkic-speaking peoples, the Kipchaks were preserved in Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatars and other sources.

Thus, by introducing a brief historical review to the readers, we come to the main question of the article: why some Turkic-speaking peoples had so high percentage of haplogroup R1a1. Consider some of these nationalities.

Altais do not represent themselves a single ethnic group. They are divided into two groups - the southern and northern Altais. Southern Altais (Altai-Kizhi), speaking the South Altai language, include Teleuts, Telengits and Telesians that by the 2002 census recorded were taken into account as separate nations. Northern Altai speaking the North Altai language include Kumandin, Chelkans and Tubalars.

With regard to sub-ethnic divisions of Altais can be assumed that Telengits and Tubalars were part of the Tele tribes, and the name Teleut (ut - the plural ending in the Mongolian language) and Teles are just variations of the ethnonym tele.
Thus, can be summarized that high levels of R1a1 among the Altai tribes was caused by the origin from Tele (gaogyuyskih) tribes in times of Turkic khanate.

Kyrgyz people

About a third of Kyrgyz kins have analogues among other Turkic peoples ( Kipchak, Kangly, kungrat, Argun and other kins, etc.). Two-thirds of these kins are unique in the sense that they occur only in Kyrgyz sources. Perhaps these kins related to autochthonous population.
As you know, on Kyrgyz territory resided Saka tribes, later here came Usun tribe from the East which by anthropological type was similar to the di tribes. Later, in 436, Usuns, under the pressure of enemies, migrated to Onion Mountains (western foothills of the Tien- Shan) [28] Also, many Oguz (Tele) tribes lived on the territory of Kyrgyzstan. One might think that high percentage of R1a1 appeared here by three ways - from the Saka tribes, from Usuns, and from Tele tribes. Among historians there is also version about resettlement of part of Yenisei Kirghiz in Kyrgyzstan.

Tajiks and Uzbeks

A high percentage of R1a in these two ethnic groups associated with the Saka tribes who lived here in ancient times, namely, the Sakas-haomavarga and partly with the Sakas-tigrahauda. If with ethnogenesis of Tajiks is more or less clear, the ethnogenesis of the Uzbeks is very complicated. As a nation, Uzbeks were formed in the 30th years of the last century. Before that in this territory lived nomadic Uzbeks, Sarti (Turkic-speaking people of the city) tribes, Tajiks, Uighurs, Kazakhs, and various tribes, do not identify themselves with any ethnic group.

Before that, among the population of Uzbekistan dominated religious identification (Muslims), though among the different groups were other ways of identification. For example, the nomadic Uzbek to the question "Who are you?" usually called his tribal affiliation (Barlas, Mangit, Kungrad) but Sarts called their regional affiliation (kokandets, buharets, tashkentets). Among Uzbeks, haplogroup R1a1 could remain from Saka tribes and Oguz (Tele) tribes.

Khakasses are descendants of Yeniseian Kirghiz. LN Gumilev considered that Kyrgyz were descendants of Dinlin tribes and Gyangun people, whose origin is unknown [29]. Necessary to think that gyangun people belonged to the descendants of the Andronov culture, which from 1700 to 1200 years BC occupied the western half of South Siberia and Kazakhstan to the Urals. Its carriers in the XVIII century BC mastered Minusinsk depression. [16]

Ishkashimian tribes

According to the hypothesis of LN Gumilev, Ishkashimian tribes descended from the tribe of Biden, although it may be that they are descended from Saks. Mixed variant also is possible.


Answering to the question posed at the beginning of this work, we want to say that the high content of haplogroup R1a1 in the above mentioned nations is explained by several ways, in particular through the Scythian-Saka tribes and through di people who lived near the China (Bidens, Usuns) and their descendants - Oguz (tele) tribes.
Try, on this basis, describe the history of the eastern R1a1.
In the time of Andronov culture, its carriers occupied the Minusinsk depression, leaving there a genetic footprint, which was later discovered in Khakassia tribes. Besides the fact, the migration of the Aryans walked along the south-east course. In this way, di people came from the west to China, where the Chinese borrowed from them the chariots, together with the animal style in art and some bronze implements. [15] Settled near the Chinese, di tribes lived as fragmented tribes. In the 7th century BC Bidens were expelled by Chinese to the south-west.
Usun tribe by their anthropological type was close to di tribes, so we assume that they were also the owners of the haplogroup R1a1. They came from the east to the territory of Kyrgyzstan, having absorbed the remnants of the Sakas and Yueh-chih (Kushan). In the 5th century, Usuns escaped from the Juan-Juan, retreated into the mountains of Tien Shan [28].
In the 3rd century BC, Chidi (Red di tribes) came out in the steppe, and likely were subordinated to the Huns. Descendants of red di were called tele tribes. To the 5th century AD, Tele tribes were already Turkic speaking. In the 5-6 centuries occured the first migration of Oguz tribes (Bulgars), caused by the struggle with its eastern neighbors Juan-Juan. By the time of the formation of the Turkic Khaganate, Tele tribes widespread in the steppe part of Eurasia, from Mongolia to the eastern Black Sea region (Bulgars, Khazars).
In 745, 840, 1040 years many Tele tribes left the Mongolia, moving to the West (Kipchaks, Uighurs, Koons, etc.) The remaining were assimilated by the Mongol tribes. Tele tribes became the basis of many Turkic-speaking peoples.
Occupation of the historian akin to occupation of investigator. As an investigator, a historian based on various data must build their own versions, and hypotheses. As fingerprinting helped to make a revolution in forensic science thus DNA-Genealogy could produce major changes in our understanding of history. DNA genealogy has become a new tool of history, which will significantly increase the detection of historical mysteries. In this article we covered only common features of dissemination of R1a1 among some ethnic groups. I think that with the accumulation of new data, we will be able to answer many questions of ethnogenesis of different populations.

1. Relatively the identification of haoma with the real plant were made the set of hypotheses: Salvia Persepolitana (plant that found only in Persia), heather, henbane, cannabis, amanita, rhubarb, euphorbia, ephedra, etc.
2 How did these two ethnonyms relate, is not clear, there is an opinion that Kang was the name of the sovereign house and Badjanak was the name of the nation.
3 Afanasian tribes buried the dead people in the mounds. Athanasian monuments are presented by burial grounds and settlements of Balyktuyul, Elo, Kara Tenesh, Tenga, Big Tolgoek, Aragol, Kurota, etc.
4 to Celto-Nordic West - European type is typical the dolichocephaly and thin leptorrhine nose, which is often (but not always) an aquiline.
5 Thus is usually called the ancient Turks, the creators of the Turkic Khaganate, that to avoid confusion of linguistic and ethnic names.
6 There are two versions of the origin of the Bulgarians. According to the first, Bulgarians were the Türkicized Ugrians, According to the second version, the Bulgarians belonged to the western Ogur (Oguz) tribes.
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