Stashes of Ataman Annenkov
A researcher from St. Petersburg will take part in its quest.
In July, the National Security Committee (NSC) of Kazakhstan plans to conduct an unusual search expedition into the border area with China, namely in Dzhungar Alatau mountain range. During the Civil War in these desolate places of the former Semirechensk region clashed in mortal combat the Red Bolshevist detachments and the White Cossacks of Ataman Annenkov. Aim of the NSC expedition is to search the hiding places of Boris Annenkov. Then, in 1920, leaving Russia the Ataman decided to hide most of his weapons and perhaps even valuables in the mountains, hoping that one day he returns, and all of this is again necessary. Ataman returned to Russia, but it was not as he expected...
Godbrother of Ungern
His name was cursed not only by Soviet propaganda but also by White emigres. The fact that the "return" of Annenkov in the USSR itself was submitted to the world as a voluntary, as well as his allegedly penitential letters to the White emigration, made at the Lubyanka that were distributed in 1920. Real circumstances of "return" of ataman in the USSR first time began to emerge recently. It is already known that his kidnapping was one of the first steps of the OGPU in beheading of the white forces abroad.
Annenkov was very interesting and tragic figure - the qualities of the Superman combined in him with a fanatical belief in the rightness of the struggle against Bolshevism, for which he spared neither his nor other people's lives. Fury and bigotry brings him close to other white general who fought against the Bolsheviks in the east - the infernal Baron Ungern, as if he came in XX century from the distant Middle Ages. They did not know each other, but somehow in Asian Division of Ungern was Annenkov Regiment.
At the end of the Alexander Military Academy, Boris Annenkov got into the 1st Siberian Cossack Regiment, stationed in the Seven Rivers on the very border with China. There, Annenkov perfectly mastered the Kyrgyz and Chinese languages. In addition, he was a great athlete. He stormed the grand summits of Jungar Alatau, which nobody hitherto conquered, and gave them the names - the mountain of Emperor Nicholas II, Cossack mountain... Perhaps he was the first climber in these mountains that is still unpeopled . "This man is richly gifted by God; he is courageous, determined, smart, hardy and always peppy. He is an excellent horseman, an athlete, a great shooter, gymnast, fencer and fine swordsman" - wrote about Annenkov, one of the leaders of the White movement, Peter Krasnov.
In the First World War, Annenkov was appointed commander of the partisan detachment of the Cossack’s volunteers, which operated in the rear of the German army, disrupting communications. In short time, in fights, he deserved St. George's arms, English gold medal "For Courage" and the French Legion of Honor.
After the October Revolution, detachment, not allowing themselves to be disarmed, arrived in Siberia. From that time began the struggle of Annenkov with the Bolsheviks.
The tattooed troop
Baron A.P.Budberg, who manage the War Ministry of Kolchak in Omsk, rarely responding in good way about someone and especially did not like Siberian "atamanship", but about Annenkov, nevertheless wrote the following: “This Ataman is a rare exception among other Siberian varieties of this rank, and in his detachment established strict discipline, military units are well trained and bear the heavy military service, and besides, ataman himself is an example of bravery , performance of duty and soldier simplicity of life. ”
Capturing all the northern Semirechye (Seven River), Annenkov, nevertheless, was unable to take the city Verniy (now Alma-Ata). Largely because of disagreements with the army ataman of Semirechensk Cossack troop, the general Ionov. One day, in the summer of 1919, Annenkov even arrested General Ionov. Finally, Kolchak made Annenkov a major general, and he became sole owner of the Seven Rivers. In addition to the Cossack units, in his army entered Chinese - Manchurian and the Kyrgyz equestrian brigade. Soldiers decorated themselves with tattoos in the form of the Orthodox cross and bizarrely wriggling snakes.
The black flag with a skull and bones and the word "God with us" served the banner of detachment. Perhaps nostalgic love to the old Imperial Army, led Annenkov to create in their units, regiment of black hussars, regiment of blue Ulans, Cuirassier and Dragoon regiment ... Annenkov demanded from his subordinates be always dressed immaculately, and his military units looked like as on the parade.
"We will return"
Under the pressure of superior Bolshevik troops, Semirechian army of Annenkov was pressed to the Chinese border. Until the end of March 1920, he held the front, but then he had to go to China. Shortly before the transition, knowing that the weapon will have to surrender to the Chinese, and hoping to come back sometime, Annenkov made a caches in the mountains, where hid much of heavy weapons. There is a legend that in parting virtuosic annenkovian artillerymen shot the last projectiles, which by its funnels left on earth the words: "We'll be back."
4,200 people crossed the border. A few months later, in the city Guchen, between Annenkov and Chinese troops occurred armed conflict. In order to settle this conflict, Ataman went to negotiate with the Chinese authorities and was immediately arrested. Annenkov had to spend in Chinese prison for three years ... Chinese tried to steal money from him, which allegedly remained in Semirechenskaya army, they also tried to accustom him to smoke opium, that to break the spirit, but it did not work. After the requests of international organizations Ataman was released in February 1924.
Annenkov lived near the Lanzhou city. There, unknown to prying eyes, he began to attempt to unify his partisans, who were scattered by the time all over China. And to cover up it, he engaged in breeding and growing of horses, owning a small stud farm. But his actions have not escaped from the agents of OGPU in China. At the time in this country was Civil War between the Chinese marshals. To all of them was required professional military, "soldiers of fortune". Many of the Russian white officers, in search of earnings, entered into these feuding armies as military advisers, and sometimes even created the whole Russian troops in the Chinese army. Annenkov also thought about it - provided the creation of such detachment, he was able to re-unite his partisans. He had two options - to join the army of Marshal Feng Yu-hsiang, or the army of his enemy - the ruler of Manchuria Marshal Chang Tso-lin. He received the offers from both of them. To his misfortune, he chose the first ...
The key role in developed by Chekists operation to capture Annenkov played Marshal Feng Yu-hsiang, head of Soviet military advisors with his army - Primakov and traitor of white case - the former colonel of the General Staff, Don Cossack – Gushchin, who collaborated with the OGPU.
Together with the White Guards, the Soviet military and Chekists by the time also consisted in counselors of Feng Yu-hsiang. The climax of their game against Annenkov was his enticement, by a White Colonel Gushchin in the trap, in the Kalgan city. Ataman arrived there after a meeting with Marshal Feng Yu-hsiang. With the secret consent of the last, occurred his arrest by Reds in March 31, 1926.
There is information about an attempt of liberation of Ataman by his faithful people during the travel of Soviet cars, with captive Annenkov, to the border of Mongolia, but it was not successful. Already on the train, when it went to Siberia, the Ataman tried to escape himself - he went to the bathroom, wrapped his hand with a towel, knocked out the glass, but Chekists, who came inside, did not allow him to jump out from the truck.
Boris Annenkov was shot August 24, 1927. According to eyewitnesses, it happened in the chamber of Semipalatinsk prison. Ataman accepted death as a hero, by tearing his shirt on his chest and cursing the executioners...
Annenkov left behind a lot of legends and mysteries ... To this day, there are rumors about the hoards, which alleged were hidden by him, when he was going to go abroad. Perhaps, forthcoming expedition of Kazakh National Security Committee will remove some of these mysteries, and we will know what in reality Ataman hid in wild Jungar Alatau Mountains?
From where is the map?
Searches will be conducted on the basis of map of caches of weapons, compiled in 1920 by an officer of the Annenkov detachment, the staff captain Sukharev. The scheme, among other documents of archive of Ataman, for some reasons, was given by Annenkov to his Dungan- translator. Later he gave them to someone from annenkovian troop. Archive came from China to the U.S. and then in Europe. One day to his current owner came to the attention the works of the St. Petersburg researcher - Maxim Ivlev, which were devoted to Ataman. Thereafter, the archive, according to Ivlev, "itself has found" him. Fortunately, in Kazakhstan, found its own enthusiast - the former Head of the Frontier Post, and then, the Head of Border commandant (pogrankomendatura) in those places, the retired colonel - Vadim Goltz. He helped with the promotion of expedition from the Kazakh side. Edition "Privy Councillor" will inform readers about its course.
"Your Privy Counsellor" № 20 (348) June 1, 2009, St. Petersburg
Source – CentrAsia
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